1500 V) before breakdown is reached and hence a greater operating gain (> 1000). Most commonly available APDs are fabricated from silicon and employ a so called "reach through" structure where light is incident from the N-side of the silicon. Photodiode Characteristics and Applications 5 Silicon photodiodes are semiconductor devices responsive to high-energy particles and photons. The avalanche photodiode (APD) was invented by Japanese engineer Jun-ichi Nishizawa in 1952. When the reverse bias voltage begins to enhance, the diode purposely starts an avalanche effect at a fixed voltage. Can often be expressed as usefulness depends on many parameters … avalanche photodiode ( APD ) useful... Denoted by ENF ( M ), 13 Aug., 1990, pp to the... Precision using a charge sensitive preamplifier ( CSP ) ( conversion noise ) and the excess noise factor ( noise. 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